Margilan(Uzbekistan)

1. Key craft with significant impact on social, cultural and economic development.

Margilan was among the well-known cities in antiquity because it made the best silk in Central Asia. Since ancient times, the city has always been home to skilled craftsmen who specialize in silk and weaving. Today, many masters managed to develop their own unique technique and technology for silk production. That is the main reason why so many people from other regions come to learn the secrets of weaving. The silk fabrics of Margilan are widely famous around the world for the unique colours and beautiful patterns.

The state granted privileges and preference for master craftsmen and the "Master-apprentice" separate training courses and academic programs are included in the schools and colleges curriculum.

In 2017, the prominent experience of the Margilan Crafts Development Center of atlas and adras-making was included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the decision of the Interstate Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCO which reflected the respect of the world community to the unique methods of traditional textile production in Margilan being preserved through the centuries.

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This ancient city, which 2000 years anniversary was celebrated by UNESCO is mentioned in historical sources under the names of Marghinon and Margilan. According to linguists, the name of the city consists of two syllables, where the first syllable "marg" means grassland, pasture, lawn. It is noteworthy to mention that this type of toponymic name is quite common in Central Asia. According to a popular legend associated with the name of Margilan, Alexander the Great himself named this city. As the legend says, the city dwellers welcomed Alexander the Great with chicken and bread called "margu bread". In response, Alexander the Great called this town "Margin". This legend is far from historical facts. Becauses, the the Greek-Roman manuscripts say that Alexander the Great returned from the city of Alexandria on the Jaxartes river (modern Sir Darya) situated in the western part of Fergana valley. However, this fact is noteworthy and it shows that various myths about Alexander the Great are common among the local people living in the areas where Alexander the Great never had gone and that these legends have been preserved for centuries. It also indicates the ancient origin of the city of Margilan.

 

2. Origin, history and traditions, of the crafts as well as their cultural identity

Unlike most ancient cities in Central Asia, Margilon has always been developing on its original location within the last 2000 years. Archaeological research has revealed that the ancient city was on a hill in the Ma'shad neighborhood of modern Margilan. The Old City occupied an area of about 20 hectares and consisted of great arch of the ruler's palace tand the city itself.

This city was one of the main cities of Fergana with well developed craftsmanship. Specificallly, the city is well known for the art of pottery. By the II century BC, the territory of the city started expanding. This was the time when an ideological center - a magnificent Zoroastrianism temple was built in the city. The rapid development of the city created the basis for the commercial caravans traveling along the Great Silk Road to make their routes through Margilan. As a result of the Arab invasion to Fergana in the beginning of the 7th century, Margilan, like other cities in the valley, faced the economic crisis. However, life in the city soon returned to its rut.

Margilan reached one of the highest stages of its development in the X-XII centuries. The city became one of the key political, economic, cultural and scientific centers of Movarounnahr. According to numismatic findings, the very first coins were made at the Margilan mint. Significant construction works were conducted at that time.

 

The craftsmanships and the mining industry were developing rapidly. As a result, the southern route of the Silk Road through Ferghana passed through Margilan. This gave impetus to the development of trade in the city. It is well known fact, that people of Ferghana valley competed with Sogdians in trade. The Chinese chronicles show that people in Fergana valley were skilled traders and delivered their goods to the countries along the Great Silk Road.

During the Mongol invasion, Margilan one more time faced the economocial and social decline. Under Amir Temur and the Temurids, the city started reviving and soon, Margilan was able to restore its status in the valley. Under the Kokand Khanate, Margilan was one of the most developed cities of the khanate and played a special role in its political, economic and cultural life.

Therefore, the city was usually ruled by the prince or the person belonging to the ruling dynasty.

After Tsar Russia invaded the Kokand Khanate, Margilan was selected as the administrative center in the valley where the strongly fortified fortress was built and the city New Margilan - Ferghana was founded. Obvously, the role of Margilan in the political, economic and cultural life of the valley of that time was taken into account as well. In particular, a strategic location of Margilan along the trade route linking Fergana with China had a key importance.

During the Soviet period, Margilan could preserve and increase its economic and cultural status, traditional significance and originality. The city of Margilan has always been one of the scientific, cultural, spiritual and enlightenment centers in Central Asia during its 2000-year history. Great thinkers, poets and poetess, artists and craftsmen were born and educated where. With their encyclopedic knowledge, friendly poetry, fine art and traditional craftsmanship, they praised the city of Margilan throughout the world.

In the sixteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries, various types of craftsmnenship were widely practiced in Margilan as well as in other cities of Central Asia. Masters with various skills lived in the city, and their work contributed to the economic development of the city. They created their own unique products based on the nature, traditions and customs of the area where they resided. One of the most developed key areas of craft production was the textile industry.

 

3. Utilitarian, ornamental, and/or ritual usage of the crafts

Margilan was the center to attract people from other regions to learn the secrets of weaving. Colourful Margilan silk fabrics with their magnificent patterns attracted the merchants from China, Iran and other Eastern countries.

In the Ferghana Valley, especially in Margilan, the abr fabrics stand alone for their elegancy and beautiful patterns. At the same time, fabrics such as Silk, Ikat, Adras, Bakhmal, Abr, Hon-Atlas, Silk Velvet were widely produced in the city.

In the second half of the 19th century, seven different colors were used for weaving the abr silk fabrics. By the 20th century, the colors had diminished to two. This is a very complex and labor-intensive process, and this technique has been mainly used for making an atlas fabric.

The Margilan adras was made of natural silk. The special technique was used to dye and process this kind of silk fabric. Four stage and eight stage looms were used to make atlas fabric. Atlas patterns were harmonized and thus were irresistible.

In the 20th century, there were about 1,000 weavers in Margilan. In the 1920s, four industrial artifacts operated in the city, and in 1963 the famous Atlas factory employing about 9,000 workers was established. The eight-stage atlas production had a highest quality.

Bekasam (natural silk/cotton) vintage Uzbek fabric was the most delicate silk fabric and the patterns had shades of turquoise, purple, green, and pink colours. After the specific processing of the fabric, it had shiny and smooth surface.

The various types of bekasam fabrics including ok chivik, olti katak and marmar were made in Margilan.

 

The fabrics were painted using natural local dyes such as pomegranate peel, onion, walnut peels. Besides, natural dyes from India (indigo) and Afghanistan were also widely used during the production process.

The Uzbek national costumes reflect the high-level skills of local masters.

The almond shape, commonly known as "pepper" was very favorite decoration for fabrics in Margilan.

The traditional clothes varied according to the place of living and customs of the locals. The main dress for women was a straight long dress. Different fabrics were used to make dresses. Mostly, silk fabrics made by local masters like satin and adras were in high demand. Women also paid great attention to the color and pattern of fabrics. The brides, of course, preferred the white fabrics. Young women wore light-colored dresses.

Another popular dress among women was a mursak (robe) which was called differently by region. For example, in Samarkand, Ferghana, Bukhara and Shakhrisabz it was known as Munisak, kaltacha, while in Khorezm it popular under the name misak.

Robes usually made with inner cotton lining. Robes were generally made of various locally produced fabrics including silk velvet and burlap. In the late 19th century, robes became integral part of women's clothing. The robes had long sleeves and narrowed downwards. Women in differetnt regions wore the robes which were named differently. The robes were mostly made of fabrics such as adras, bekasam, and silk. By the early 20th century, theses fabrics started to be used to make women jacket, suits, and other clothing products. The jacket was also like a robe but its sleeves were narrow and long. Such kind of jacket usually was made of bekasam and other silk fabrics. Women also wore jillets. In Margilan, it was known as "kamzul". It was made of fabrics like silk velvet and other fabrics.These traditions are still alive.

Today, more than 1,000 handmade national fabrics are woven in Margilan. If they produce 10 meters a day, becomes 10,000 meters a day. Basically, these fabrics are divided into two types. 100% cotton fabrics made for simple everyday wear. These dresses are worn by women at home or at work. 50% cotton and 50% silk fabrics are used to wear luxurious costumes at festivities.

At the same time, national fabrics are used in beds and mattresses. Nowadays, it is a tradition to make national furniture, even in modern furniture. It is also used after the national fabrics in curtains and in the tableware, bags, and cloth.

 

4. Where is the craft produced? For example, work sheds crafts peoples’ homes, museums, studios, etc.

The city of Marghilan has a population of 230,000 and is divided into 54 makhallyas (communities), with about 1,000 masters in each producing silk fabrics such as adras, atlas, silk and alocha painted with natural dyes. Such prominent masters like Rasuljon Mirzaakhmedov, Fazliddin Dadajonov and Nurmuhammad Valiev were abble to create their own unique school crafts. Fabrics made by them are widely used by the world famous designers for clothing and home interiors. The production of silk fabrics in Margilan households have historical roots. Here, the production process on the community level is conducted as follows: one family immerses cocoon in hot water, the other family reels, the third family stretches (stretching up to two hundred and more meters), the fourth family layers (forms layers to pattern the silk), the fifth family fixes to paint, the sixth family paints, the seventh family make sit ready for weaving and at last, the eighth family weaves the silk. Using this conveyor-style technology, familieis turn coccon into the ready to use silk fabrics. With this conveyor style, thousands households and families turn cocoon into silk through 34 productions stages. Guests of Margilan will have the opportunity to visit Rasuljon Mirzaakhmedov's "Craft Development Center" and family workshops of the craftsmen Fazliddin Dadajon and Nurmuhammad Valiev to wintess unique traditional production process. In part, the traditional production methods of silk fabrics from cocoon are preserved at the "Yodgorlik" enterprise, which is known as the "living museum". More than 100,000 people come to visit this enterprise every year.

 

 

 

 

5. What are the raw materials used, how are they made and what are the techniques of production?

Margilan has always been known as the silk center. There were about 600 silk factories in the Ferghana Valley in 1896, while the number of silk producers in the Margilan alone was 238. Two-thirds of the cocoon dryers in the Ferghana Valley were in Margilan. Margilan city was one of the key cocoon processing centers in Turkestan. After the initial processing of the cocoon, it was delivered to the foreign countries including factories in Milan, Marseille and Central Russia Launched in 1936, the silk factory employed 17,000 workers and processed 50% of all cocoons in Uzbekistan and became the main supplier of various silk fibers to manufacturers. Today, over dozen silk producing enterprises like "Silk Watts", "Nurli Tong" operate in Margilan. Nowadays, the Uzbek government widly intensifies creation of clusters of silkworm breeding in the country and the local silk producing farmers and mulberry tree plantations are attached to these enterprises. In 2019, 30,000 tonnes of wet cocoons were produced in Uzbekistan and 1,800 tonnes of this amount falls into Ferghana region. 90% of over 3,500 tonnes of natural silk fiber, including 240 tonnes of raw silk produced in the Republic were manufactured in Margilan. 420 tonnes (12%) of the produced silk was used by the local families to manufacture traditional national fabrics. Due to Uzbekistan being the fifth largest cotton producer in the world, the production of national cotton fabrics is developing very rapidly. Today, 85% of the fabrics produced in Margilan contain 100% cotton.

 

6. Markets – who buys the craft from the craftsperson? Are they sold in retail locations, museums, stores, traditional markets or boutiques?

The traditional fabrics made in Margilan and sold by craftsmen at traditional Oriental bazaars, for example in Kumtepa Bazaar which works on Thursdays and Sundays. Another Silk Bazaar in Margilan works every day and these markets have their own retail outlets. By 01.02.2020, 520 specialized retail shops selling national craft products operate in Margilan. Of these, 422 retail outlets are selling national fabrics and traditional clothes. Craftsmen from Marghilan sell traditional goods to the visitors in local markets in Marghilan as well as they deliver their goods to Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva. As a result, 100,000 metric tons of products are manufactured in Margilan per day and the traditional fabrics are delivered both to the local and international markets. Since 2010, Margilan gradually gains the status of a center for the production of national women's clothing in line with the production of traditional fabrics.

 

7. Statistics on craftspeople – traditional trained, studio crafts, etc.

In his article published in the "Turkistan Agriculture" newspaper in 1916 the Russian scientist V. Rozvadowski wrote that according to his research of the textile industry in Turkistan conducted in 1910, 197 crafstmen were employed by the 46 workshops in Bukhara alone, while in Karshi and Samarkand functioned only 19 and 6 workshops respectively. At that moment, there were 40 workshops in Kokand and 97 in Khujakent where 12 workshops specialized in production of silk fabrics. He also noted that Margilan was the home for 120 workshops where manufatured different types of fabrics. So, the scientist pays attention to the fact that different workshops in Margilan formed the unified chain of silk production starting from cocoon processing and ending with delivering of ready silk fabrics to the final consumers. Today, the government of Uzbekistan motivates the craftsmen with great opportunities to produce and sell their products, and since 1997, masters have been exempted from income tax. As of February 1, 2020, 706 of 5795 registered craftsmen in Ferghana region are in Margilan. 458 of them are the national fabric manufacturers. These 458 craftsmen share their experience with 2500 apprentices through the "Master-apprentice" school. It brings together more than 10,000 local masters including non-professional silk manufacturers and family members of the crafsmen working without the state registration.

 

8. Trade in craft

Artisan trade has long been established in the markets on the basis of the mutual agreement between the seller and the buyer. In the markets since ancient times, there was an elder in every type of craft, responsible for the high-quality production of artisan products and the sale of crafts. An elder selected the craftsmen by choosing an older and more experienced craftsman. Elders mainly supervised young people to export their products and monitor compliance with fair trade rules. The master introduced his student to the market and taught him the rules of trade. This tradition has been going on for over 1000 years. The masters teach their trades skills not only in Margilan but also in the markets of neighboring countries. The “Hunarmand” Association helps artisans to participate and trade there.

 

9. The relationship of craft to local tourism

Foreign tourists coming to Fergana region mainly visit national workshops to get familiar with their methods and participate directly in the production process. In 2019, according to official statistics, 192,000 tourists visited Ferghana region. The preferable route of 80% of these tourists certainly layers through Margilan where they can buy traditional fabrics and feel the aura of local customs at the traditional oriental markets. The most popular routes for tourists are the 'Yodgorlik" enterprise, the “Margilan Craft Development Center” included in the UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Fazliddin Dadajanov's workshop, Ibrahimjon Askarov and Yusufjon Mamayusupov's galleries who created a unique school for the production of traditional fabrics. Tourists may also chose a special tour for visiting families and workshops in the makhallyas (communities) paticipating the production chain of traditional silk fabrics. Two-story 4,000-square-foot craft market and craft center to be launched in 2020.

In addition, since 2015, the traditional international festival "Atlas day" is regularly held in Margilan under the auspices of UNESCO to popularize the national fabrics among the international community.

The Festival contributes to improve the quality and design of traditional products, as well as to attract tourists to this region of Uzbekistan with rich textile production traditions, providing assistance young people and women gain new knowledge and skills on traditional crafts, and contributing to the economic and social well-being of the population.

Artisan trade has long been established in the markets on the basis of the mutual agreement between the seller and the buyer. In the markets since ancient times, there was an elder in every type of craft, responsible for the high-quality production of artisan products and the sale of crafts. An elder selected the craftsmen by choosing an older and more experienced craftsman. Elders mainly supervised young people to export their products and monitor compliance with fair trade rules. The master introduced his student to the market and taught him the rules of trade. This tradition has been going on for over 1000 years. The masters teach their trades skills not only in Margilan but also in the markets of neighboring countries. The “Hunarmand” Association helps artisans to participate and trade there.

 

Craft education

1. How do the craftspeople learn their trade? Are the traditions passed down in the family or community?

In Uzbekistan, there are a lot of different bazaars in different part of the country. Every part of the country has their own culture and different cultural trading in the bazaars. When you visit to the bazaar, you will have choice of different products, depends on quality, price, design and masterpieces.

Margilan has also its own cultural trading bazaars. They have atmosphere like "Eastern bazaar". One of the famous bazaar is “Kumtepa” bazaar. When some people visit to Margilan, they begin from that famous market. This market is major trading center of the city, sprawled over a big area, part covered, part not, and was very clearly a market for the crowds of locals, not tourists. Anything they might need, from beds and wardrobes, through jackets and shoes, to car parts and motor oil, of course, famous ikat fabrics and products from Margilan Silk, should be informed that the market works only Thursday and Sunday from early morning till late afternoon.

In Uzbekistan, Father has more responsibility to grow up their children, which is starting to teach them from a young age and play an important role in trading. It is not an exaggeration to say that this is a legacy inherited from one generation to the next. If you follow the trading places, each of the trading area has a helper to the trader, mostly their son, which is not important how old is he. Initially, they will be given small tasks and gradually entrusted to them with bookkeeping. In the end, they grow up not only the successor of the generation, but also a proficient expert in trading.

 

2. Are there design schools and designers who work with the craftspeople?

In Margilan, design colleges have been opening in recent years. But design studios are less popular. Designers play an important role in improving the quality of craftspeople products, innovating the different patterns and exchanging ideas. Many well-known craftsmen are working with famous designers from Tashkent to promote their crafts throughout the world. For example, the BibiHanum design studio founded by Muhayo Alieva, the Mursak design house by Nilufar Abduvaliyeva and other designers such as Marhamatkhon Umarova, Khilola Sher and many others. Together with artisans, they collaborate in expanding the range of new products, improving their quality, and discovering the world of contemporary fashion and color and promote national and modern products in the world and, of course, provide practical assistance to artisans worldwide in promoting and marketing their products.

 

3. What is the creative industry like in your area? Are there institutions which promote craft or educate people about craft?

During the independence years, special attention was given to the applied art and craftsmanship. The work of folk masters has been honored. The types of crafts have been revived, old dynasties workshops and the master-schools have been established in the centers of the craft.

With the purpose of further development of national crafts and applied art, support of national craftsmen and worthy stimulation of their work, in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan "Hunarmand" Association of craftsmen, craftsmen and artists of the Republic of Uzbekistan was established.

Establishing "Craftsman" Association is a further development of craftsmanship in our country, restoration of unique and lost crafts, proper assessment of the work of our craftsmen using hand-made resources, demonstration of their works not only in our country but also abroad and the creation of conditions for their creativity, encouragement and support. In recent years, about 22,000 artisans have become members of the association.

Currently, the Craftsmen's Association has offices in every region of the country, informing them about artisan membership, craft news, decrees, and incentives to support craftsmen by the President of Uzbekistan.

 

 

4. Awareness – are there award programmes and other types of recognition in place?

The Republic of Uzbekistan has state awards and can be awarded for labor and combat services, effective state, social and creative activity. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who have served in the Republic of Uzbekistan may also be awarded, in some cases, businesses institutions, organizations, public associations, creative collectives and military units, and administrative and territorial units of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

It is accepted by the Republic of Uzbekistan on April 26, 1996 honorary title "People's Artist of the Republic of Uzbekistan" is awarded to national craftsmen for their contribution to the further development of national culture and training of talented youth ", who have rendered special services in the development of folk arts and crafts".

From Margilan, Fazliddin Dadajonov, Rasuljon Mirzaakhmedov, Nabijon Toshtemirov only awarded honorary title “25-years of anniversary of Republic of Uzbekistan”.

 

5. Do the local media and publications cover the craft industry?

The Republican Hunarmand Association established News Service Department, which regularly covers the activities of regional and district departments on craftsmanship. The association's websites, https://youngcrafters.uz, https://handicrafters.uz and social networking sites such as Facebook, Instagram, Telegram, regularly publish articles, presentations and videos about Uzbekistan craftsmen. The activities of artisans from Uzbekistan are regularly covered by more than 100 media outlets, TV, radio, newspapers and Internet publications in Uzbekistan.

 

6. Do you market in trade fairs, conferences, high profile events?

Craftsmen in the Republic of Uzbekistan want to promote their creations around the world. Also, Margilan craftsmen participate in international exhibitions and scientific conferences every year. For example, Ikat – masters – Fazliddin Dadajonov, Rasuljon Mirzaakhmedov participate in Santa-Fe Folk Market, Dallas Market Center every year in USA.

They also promote their national handmade crafts with the help of the Embassies of Uzbekistan located in other countries.

 

7. What is the approximate number of creative professionals in your area? What is the number of jobs created in the past 5 years?

Craftsmen are members of the Hunarmand Association in 34 directions. In 2016, the official registered of craftsmen in “Hunarmand Association” Margilan region, there were 255 registered craftsmen, including 1,222 students, and today their number has reached 450 craftsmen and 1,685 students.

 

8. Are there areas or neighborhoods dedicated to creativity (e.g. regeneration plans) – creative clusters and professional associations.

There are about 450 registered craftsmen in Margilan. Most of them are atlas-adras makers. The makhallyas in Margilan work in cluster mode. For example, in the Oq Masjid - Mashad makhallyas there are all the processes for the production of silk, and if you visit every house in the makhallyas you will be engaged in some process of silk production. Some of them makes dying process or weaving and other processes divided into houses.

 

9. Does the area have an international reputation?

Margilan has a distinct touch to itself highly regarded for its silk products in Far East and West. The greatest craftsmen of silk fabrics who can weave together unmatchable impressive silk materials with majestic designs on them without use of modern machinery. The Khan-atlas and adras fabric especially is the signature fabric produced in this region which was exported to Europe and the Middle East along the Silk Road route.

From the different part of the world, people come to see the magics of the silk production in Margilan. There are places which tourists visits and see every process of ikat making one by one.

An example is the Margilan Craft Development Center. In this center has different kind of craftsmen such as copper-smith, block-printing, silk carpet weaving, embroidery and as well silk production. In 2017, Margilan Crafts Development Center selected on the register of good safeguarding practices by the National Comission of UNESCO. The Center goal is to safeguard, develop and promote the method of Uzbek traditional atlas and adras making through innovative training sessions, exhibitions and craft fairs, traditional textile festivals, and the publication of safeguarding materials and manuals.

International festivals are also held in Margilan. These include the “Atlas-Bayrami” International Festival of Crafts and Designers, “Buyuk Ipak Yuli” International Folk Music Festival.

 

10. Are there informal educational opportunities?

Margilan craftsmanship is based on the traditions passed down from generation to generation. That is, the craft goes from father to son, mother to daughter. In addition, students will be selected from the youth who are interested and talented based on the master-student tradition. The master teaches his students all the secrets of his knowledge and skills. Each craft has its own secrets of the profession, the principles of mastery and disciple-making, and occupational safety. Such pamphlets are still in the hands of many masters who continue their dynasty. It is shown to only a few people and is usually kept by many masters.

Today, many craftsmen established their own informal schools or training centers. For example, ikat-master Fazliddin Dadajonov, Rasuljon MIrzaakhmedov, Nurmuhammad Valiev, copper-smith master Abdulhamid Madaliev. Today, the masters teaching their students the secrets of crafts.

 

 

Information about crafts people

1. Statistics on crafts people, for example are they traditionally trained in school or universities; do they work in studios, etc.?

Margilan craftsmanship is based on the traditions passed down from generation to generation. That is, the craft goes from father to son, mother to daughter. In addition, students will be selected from the youth who are interested and talented based on the master-student tradition. The master teaches his students all the secrets of his knowledge and skills. Each craft has its own secrets of the profession, the principles of mastery and disciple-making, and occupational safety. Such pamphlets are still in the hands of many masters who continue their dynasty. It is shown to only a few people and is usually kept by many masters.

In addition, all secondary schools have special hours in labor lessons that teach the basics of applied arts and crafts, which teach the history of the arts and theoretical information, and conduct small classes.

There are departments of applied arts and crafts in special schools and colleges of the Republic, where young people are taught various disciplines for 3 years of education. Students become not only theorists, but also true craftsmen. The majority of craftsmen are students of secondary special education.

In addition, there is an opportunity for higher education in applied arts and crafts. In all pedagogical universities, students of the Kamoliddin Behzod Institute of Design and Art can get a higher education and become professional specialists in applied arts and crafts. The Institute of Art Studies operates under the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. There scientists and art critics conduct research on the theory, problems and development of applied arts and crafts. The results of these studies will be put into practice.

 

2. What are the social conditions of the craftspeople? Do they have health care, retirement rights, etc.?

Once they join Hunarmand association, they are also registered as individual entrepreneurs. Their membership certificates are issued for one year. Upon expiration, the membership fee will be paid and deferred. Craftsmen pay monthly social security insurance at the rate of one minimum wage. They are exempt from any other tax payments. This period adds to their work experience. They may withdraw from the membership at any time and continue their activities as an individual entrepreneur. At the same time, they pay all fixed taxes. Tax privileges apply only to artisans who are members of the association.

The craftsmen retire at the age of 55 and the men at 60. He/she may continue to work even after retirement. They are currently receiving their full benefits and are exempt from social insurance and taxes.

 

3. What are the working conditions of the craftspeople? What materials are used in the workshop? What are the environmental conditions in the working area, etc.?

Craft workshops are regularly inspected by state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance centers, fire departments and the Ministry of Emergency Situations, and appropriate penalties are imposed on those who violate safety regulations.

They fully adhere to safety regulations and instructions. Regular explanations are provided by local media. There are separate rooms for working in crafts workshops, dining and hygiene. The main work in the manufacturing process is done by manual labor, with the emphasis on using natural raw materials available locally and some imported abroad. They are members of the National Revival Party of Uzbekistan and the Federation of Trade Unions. Working and training hours are set for no more than 8 hours and are open from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. Artisans often work at home, setting their own time.

 

4. Is there a standard rate of pay and if so how much?

Craftsmen are individual entrepreneurs who receive the full profit from the sale of their products. They pay monthly state social insurance contributions to the state at a minimum wage, and pay an association membership fee of four minimum wages. They also pay no fees and taxes. Students are paid on a monthly basis, depending on the nature of their work.

 

To view the photos of the Margilan Evaluation visit held on September 7-10, 2022, click here: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1xsCr6hm7iwnB91c3dCmkZq9JJwy34cMr?usp=sharing